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The extraordinary developments in computing, communications and medical technologies, are making a reality what we have not even dreamt of. Telemedicine & eHealth are revolutionizing the world of health care. If you are, or wish to be involved in this exciting field, the “Future of Medicine”, then this site is for you. Learn how to become AATM member


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Armenian Digital Health Initiative

Yerevan, Armenia
August 14th, 2021

Telemedicine & eHealth

TM & eH at a glance
. Introduction
. What is TM & eH
. Definitions
. Examples
. Brief History
. Facts & Figures
. Types of Services
. Tools & Equipment
. Benefits
. Difficulties
. Future

Telemedicine & eHealth in Armenia

References & Further Readings

Related Resources

References & Further Reading

Numbering corresponds to the interactive reference figures found throughout the page Telemedicine & eHealth

Handbooks and Manuals on Telemedicine & eHealth

1. Tracy J (ed.) et al. Telemedicine Technical Assistance Documents: A Guide to Getting Started in Telemedicine. 2004. – 405 pp.
2. Wootton R, Patil NG, Scott RE, Ho K (eds.). Telehealth in the Developing World. Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2009. – 285 pp.
3. Владзимирский А.В. Клиническое телеконсультирование. Руководство для врачей. Издание второе, дополненное и переработанное. Донецк, «Норд», 2005. – 107 стр.
4. Владзимирский А.В. Модели лучшей практики для телемедицины и электронного здравоохранения. Донецк, «Норд», 2005. – 36 стр.

World Health Organization (WHO)

5. WHO 1998: A Health Telematics Policy. Report of the WHO Group Consultation on Health Telematics, 11-16 Dec 1997. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1997-1998.
6. WHO 1998: Telehealth and Telemedicine will henceforth be part of the strategy for Health for All. Press Release 23 Dec 1997. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1997-1998.
7. WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. Intercountry Meeting on Telemedicine. Conclusions and Recommendations. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 7–9 Feb 1999.
8. WHO Department of Essential Health Technologies: eHealth for Health-care Delivery (eHCD), Strategy 2004-2007.
9. WHO 2005: 58th WHA (World Health Assembly); eHealth – Report by the Secretariat. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005.
10. WHO 2005: WHA (World Health Assembly) Resolution 58/28 on eHealth, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005.
11. WHO 2005: Connecting for Health: Global Vision, Local Insights. Report for the World Summit on the Information Society. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2005.
12. WHO 2006: eHealth Tools & Services: Needs of the Member States. Report of the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2006.
13. WHO 2006: Building Foundations for eHealth: Progress of Member States. Report of the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2006.
14. WHO 2006: Boucher P. Guidelines Public/Private Collaboration for ICT Development in Health Department of Knowledge Management and Sharing.
15. WHO eHealth Standards List.
16. WHO 2009: Merchant JA, Cook TM, Missen CC. The Role of Information and Communications Technology.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

17. ITU, Telecommunication Development Bureau. ITU-D Study Groups. Telemedicine and Developing Countries – Lessons Learned. International Telecommunication Union, Doc. 2/116-E, Aug 1999.
18. International Telecommunication Union. Telemedicine & eHealth Directory, 2004.
19. ITU 2006: World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators, International Telecommunication Union, 2006.
20. International Telecommunication Union. World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2006: Measuring ICT for Social and Economic Development.
21. ITU, Telecommunication Development Bureau. ITU-D Brochure in English. International Telecommunication Union, 2009.
22. ITU, Telecommunication Development Bureau. ITU-D Brochure in Russian. International Telecommunication Union, 2009.

U.S. Government, and American Telemedicine Association (ATA)

23. Telemedicine Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1997. Available at
24. Telemedicine Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001.
25. ATA 2008: Global Forum on Telemedicine: Connecting the World through Partnerships. International Roadmap for Action. American Telemedicine Association (ATA), March 2008.
26. ATA: Telemedicine Defined. American Telemedicine Association, 2009.
27. ATA: What Is Telemedicine and Telehealth? American Telemedicine Association, 2009.
28. ATA: Telemedicine/Telehealth Terminology. American Telemedicine Association, 2009.
29. ATA and International Telemedicine: A Report of the ATA International Task Force. American Telemedicine Association, 2005.
30. U.S. Telehealth Resource Centers.
31. U.S. Telehealth Resource Centers – Map.

European Commission (EC)

32. Commission of the European Communities – COM (2004) 356 final: e-Health - making health care better for European citizens: An action plan for a European e-Health Area. Brussels, April 2004.
33. Commission of the European Communities – COM (2008) 689 final: On telemedicine for the benefit of patients, healthcare systems and society. Brussels, Nov 2008.
34. European Commission – DG Information society and Media: Sources of Financing and Policy Recommendations to Member States and the European Commission on Boosting e-Health Investment: Final Study Report. EU, Dec 2008.
35. European Commission – DG Information society and Media: Novotny P. E-Health in Central and East European Countries, with focus on Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. Brussels, Feb 2004.
36. European Commission – DG Information society and Media: ICT for Health – eHealth 2009 Conference Declaration. Prague, Feb 2009.
37. European Commission – DG Information Society and Media. Accelerating the Development of the eHealth Market in Europe. eHealth Taskforce report 2007. Luxembourg, 2007.


European Space Agency (ESA)

38. ESA-WHO-ITU: The Telemedicine Alliance. Three Phases of TMA.
39. ESA-WHO-ITU: The Telemedicine Alliance. Telemedicine 2010: Visions for a Personal Medical Network. European Space Agency ESA-BR-229, July 2004.
40. ESA-WHO-ITU: The Telemedicine Alliance. Telemedicine 2010: Visions for a Personal Medical Network. Summary of Final Report. Aug 2004.
41. ESA-WHO-ITU: The Telemedicine Alliance. Towards Interoperable eHealth for Europe: Telemedicine Alliance Strategy. European Space Agency ESA-BR-255, Nov 2005.
42. ESA: Interoperability for eHealth: Facing Challenges and Overcoming Barriers. European Space Agency.

Other International Structures

43. UNESCO Secretariat. Information and Communication Technologies in Development: A UNESCO Perspective.
44. World Summit on the Information Society. Plan of Action: Civil Society’s Priorities.
45. Horsch A, Pedersen S, Schall T (Eds.). Integration of Multi-Media Telemedicine Applications into Health Service for Routine Use – State of the Art and Recommendations. Munich, Tromse, Regensburg, 2003.
46. The e-Health Innovation Professionals Group. The Impact of e-Health and Assistive Technologies on Health-care. 2005.
47. World Bank. 2006 Information & Communications for Development (IC4D) – Global Trends and Policies.
48. EHTEL 2008: Sustainable Telemedicine: paradigms for future-proof healthcare. A Briefing Paper prepared for the Sustainable Telemedicine Task Force, EHTEL (European Health Telematics Association), Feb 2008.

Miscellaneous Articles

49. Practice by Telephone. The Lancet, Nov. 29, 1879, p. 819.
50. Klein SR, Manning WL. Telemedicine and the Law. Healthcare Information Management, 1997.
51. American College of Emergency Physicians: Telemedicine in Emergency Medicine. Information Paper. ACEP, 1998.
52. Wachter GW. Telecommunication, Linking Providers and Patients. June 30, 2000.
53. Wachter GW. Needs Assessment: A Key to Building Better Telemedicine Programs. Oct 25, 2000.
54. Eysenbach G. What is e-health? J Med Internet Res 2001;3(2):e20.
55. Wachter GW. Life after Grant Funds: Utilization and Flexibility are Key. June 1, 2001.
56. Wallace G. Information Technology and Telemedicine. Can Med Assoc J 2001; 165(6): 777-9.
57. Marescaux J. Code Name: Lindbergh Operation. Editorial. WebSurg, 2002; and 57-2: Operation Lindbergh: A World First in TeleSurgery – The Surgical Act Crosses the Atlantic. Press-conference, Sept 19, 2001; New-York – Strasburg.
58. Bauer JC. Insights on Telemedicine: How Big Is the Market? J Healthcare Inform Manage 2002;16(2):10-11.
59. Metaxiotis K, Ptochos D, Psarras J. E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda Int J Electron Healthc 2004; 1: 165–75.
60. Effertz G. Using a Business Case for Telehealth - a Model for Persuading Decision Makers. March/April, 2004.
61. Dario C, Dunbar A, Feliciani F, et al. Opportunities and Challenges of eHealth and Telemedicine via Satellite. Proceedings of ESRIN-Symposium, July 5, 2004, Frascati, Italy. Eur J Med Res Supplement, Dec 2004, pp 1-84.
62. Drury P. The eHealth agenda for developing countries. World Hosp Health Serv, 2005; 41: 38–40.
63. Medicare Payments of Telemedicine and Telehealth Services. May 15, 2006.
64. Wachter RM. The “Dis-location” of U.S. Medicine – The Implications of Medical Outsourcing. N Engl J Med 2006;354(7):661-5.
65. Eysenbach G. Poverty, human development, and the role of e-health. J Med Internet Res 2007; 9: e34.
66. Khoja S, Scott RE, Casebeer AL et al. E-health readiness assessment tools for health-care institutions in developing countries. Telemed J E Health 2007; 13: 425–31.
67. Edirippulige S, Marasinghe RB, Dissanayake VHW, et al. Strategies to promote e-health and telemedicine activities in developing countries. 2007.
68. Latifi R. The do’s and don’t’s when you establish telemedicine and e-health (not only) in developing countries. Stud Health Technol Inform 2008; 131: 39–43.
69. Wootton R. Telemedicine support for the developing world: Keynote presentation. J Telemed Telecare 2008; 14: 109-114.
70. Tang PC, Lee TH. Your Doctor’s Office or the Internet? Two Paths to Personal Health Records. N Engl J Med 2009;360(13):1276-8.
71. Mandl KD, Kohane IS. No Small Change for the Health Information Economy. N Engl J Med 2009;360(13):1278-81.
72. Blumenthal D. Stimulating the Adoption of Health Information Technology. N Engl J Med 2009;360(15):1477-79.
73. Jha AK, DesRoches CM, Campbell EG, et al. Use of Electronic Health Records in U.S. Hospitals. N Engl J Med 2009;360(16):1628-38.
74. Tannen RL, Weiner MG, Dawei X. Use of Primary Care Electronic Medical Record Database in Drug Efficacy Research on Cardiovascular Outcomes: Comparison of Database and Randomised Controlled Trial Findings. BMJ 2009;338:b81.
75. Bashshur RL, Shannon GW, et al. National Telemedicine Initiatives: Essential to Healthcare Reform. Policy White Paper. Telemedicine and e-Health 2009; 15(6).

Health Care and ICT in Armenia

76. CIA World Fact Book: Armenia. Available at:
77. ICT in Armenia: Report on the State of the Industry, Enterprise Incubator Foundation, Yerevan, Armenia, 2008.
78. [Armenian Medical Resources. Analysis of Health Care Facilities. Analytical Center of National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health, Republic of Armenia.] Yerevan, 2006.
79. [Population Health Description. Analysis of Health Care Facilities. Analytical Center of National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health, Republic of Armenia.] Yerevan, 2007.
80. Health System Performance in Armenia: Strategic Review Summary. Yerevan, 2008.
81. Ministry of Health data, 2009.
82. "How Great is the Burden of Household Health Expenditure in Armenia" report by USAID Primary Healthcare Reform Project (PHCR), Armenia, 2008.
83. "Using general practitioner selection as a social technology tool to catalyze primary healthcare reform: The Armenian case" presented at the 135th Annual Meeting & Exposition of the American Public Health Association, Washington DC, November 3-7, 2007.
84. Holloway H, Nicogossian A, Stewart D, eds. Proceedings of the First International Telemedicine/Disaster Medicine Conference, NASA publication NP-207. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters, 1993: 2–22.
85. Screnci D, Hrisch E, Levy K, Skawinski E, DerBoghosian M. Medical outreach to Armenia by telemedicine linkage. Journal of Medical Systems 1996;20:67–76.
86. Hrisch E, Levy K. Trauma system development in Armenia. Journal of Medical Systems 1996; 20: 77–82.
87. Istepanian RSH, Nikogosian H. Telemedicine in Armenia. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 2000;6(5):268-272..


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